Plotting

Most interaction with Gadfly is through the plot function. Plots are described by binding data to aesthetics, and specifying a number of elements including Scales, Coordinates, Guides, and Geometries. Aesthetics are a set of special named variables that are mapped to a geometry. How this mapping occurs is defined by the elements.

This "grammar of graphics" approach tries to avoid arcane incantations and special cases, instead approaching the problem as if one were drawing a wiring diagram: data is connected to aesthetics, which act as input leads, and elements, each self-contained with well-defined inputs and outputs, are connected and combined to produce the desired result.

Functions and Expressions

Along with the standard plot methods operating on DataFrames and Arrays described in the Tutorial, Gadfly has some special signatures to make plotting functions and expressions more convenient.

plot(f::Function, lower, upper, elements...; mapping...)
plot(fs::Vector{T}, lower, upper, elements...; mapping...) where T <: Base.Callable
plot(f::Function, xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax, elements...; mapping...)
spy(M::AbstractMatrix, elements...; mapping...) -> Plot

For example:

p1 = plot([sin,cos], 0, 2pi)
p2 = plot((x,y)->sin(x)+cos(y), 0, 2pi, 0, 2pi)
p3 = spy(ones(33)*sin.(0:(pi/16):2pi)' + cos.(0:(pi/16):2pi)*ones(33)')
hstack(p1,p2,p3)
x 0 10 20 30 40 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.9 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.9 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.9 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.9 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.7 16.8 16.9 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 17.8 17.9 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.7 18.8 18.9 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 19.7 19.8 19.9 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 20.7 20.8 20.9 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 21.6 21.7 21.8 21.9 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 22.6 22.7 22.8 22.9 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 23.6 23.7 23.8 23.9 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 24.5 24.6 24.7 24.8 24.9 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 25.6 25.7 25.8 25.9 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 26.4 26.5 26.6 26.7 26.8 26.9 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 27.4 27.5 27.6 27.7 27.8 27.9 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 28.4 28.5 28.6 28.7 28.8 28.9 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4 29.5 29.6 29.7 29.8 29.9 30.0 30.1 30.2 30.3 30.4 30.5 30.6 30.7 30.8 30.9 31.0 31.1 31.2 31.3 31.4 31.5 31.6 31.7 31.8 31.9 32.0 32.1 32.2 32.3 32.4 32.5 32.6 32.7 32.8 32.9 33.0 33.1 33.2 33.3 33.4 33.5 0 50 -1 1 2 0 -2 Color h,j,k,l,arrows,drag to pan i,o,+,-,scroll,shift-drag to zoom r,dbl-click to reset c for coordinates ? for help ? 0 10 20 30 40 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.9 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.9 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.9 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.9 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.7 16.8 16.9 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 17.8 17.9 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.7 18.8 18.9 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 19.7 19.8 19.9 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 20.7 20.8 20.9 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 21.6 21.7 21.8 21.9 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 22.6 22.7 22.8 22.9 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 23.6 23.7 23.8 23.9 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 24.5 24.6 24.7 24.8 24.9 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 25.6 25.7 25.8 25.9 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 26.4 26.5 26.6 26.7 26.8 26.9 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 27.4 27.5 27.6 27.7 27.8 27.9 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 28.4 28.5 28.6 28.7 28.8 28.9 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4 29.5 29.6 29.7 29.8 29.9 30.0 30.1 30.2 30.3 30.4 30.5 30.6 30.7 30.8 30.9 31.0 31.1 31.2 31.3 31.4 31.5 31.6 31.7 31.8 31.9 32.0 32.1 32.2 32.3 32.4 32.5 32.6 32.7 32.8 32.9 33.0 33.1 33.2 33.3 33.4 33.5 0 50 y x 0 2 4 6 8 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.45 1.50 1.55 1.60 1.65 1.70 1.75 1.80 1.85 1.90 1.95 2.00 2.05 2.10 2.15 2.20 2.25 2.30 2.35 2.40 2.45 2.50 2.55 2.60 2.65 2.70 2.75 2.80 2.85 2.90 2.95 3.00 3.05 3.10 3.15 3.20 3.25 3.30 3.35 3.40 3.45 3.50 3.55 3.60 3.65 3.70 3.75 3.80 3.85 3.90 3.95 4.00 4.05 4.10 4.15 4.20 4.25 4.30 4.35 4.40 4.45 4.50 4.55 4.60 4.65 4.70 4.75 4.80 4.85 4.90 4.95 5.00 5.05 5.10 5.15 5.20 5.25 5.30 5.35 5.40 5.45 5.50 5.55 5.60 5.65 5.70 5.75 5.80 5.85 5.90 5.95 6.00 6.05 6.10 6.15 6.20 6.25 6.30 6.35 6.40 6.45 6.50 6.55 6.60 6.65 6.70 6.75 6.80 6.85 6.90 6.95 7.00 7.05 7.10 7.15 7.20 7.25 7.30 7.35 7.40 7.45 7.50 7.55 7.60 7.65 7.70 7.75 7.80 7.85 7.90 7.95 8.00 0 10 -1 1 2 0 -2 f(x,y) h,j,k,l,arrows,drag to pan i,o,+,-,scroll,shift-drag to zoom r,dbl-click to reset c for coordinates ? for help ? 0 2 4 6 8 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.45 1.50 1.55 1.60 1.65 1.70 1.75 1.80 1.85 1.90 1.95 2.00 2.05 2.10 2.15 2.20 2.25 2.30 2.35 2.40 2.45 2.50 2.55 2.60 2.65 2.70 2.75 2.80 2.85 2.90 2.95 3.00 3.05 3.10 3.15 3.20 3.25 3.30 3.35 3.40 3.45 3.50 3.55 3.60 3.65 3.70 3.75 3.80 3.85 3.90 3.95 4.00 4.05 4.10 4.15 4.20 4.25 4.30 4.35 4.40 4.45 4.50 4.55 4.60 4.65 4.70 4.75 4.80 4.85 4.90 4.95 5.00 5.05 5.10 5.15 5.20 5.25 5.30 5.35 5.40 5.45 5.50 5.55 5.60 5.65 5.70 5.75 5.80 5.85 5.90 5.95 6.00 6.05 6.10 6.15 6.20 6.25 6.30 6.35 6.40 6.45 6.50 6.55 6.60 6.65 6.70 6.75 6.80 6.85 6.90 6.95 7.00 7.05 7.10 7.15 7.20 7.25 7.30 7.35 7.40 7.45 7.50 7.55 7.60 7.65 7.70 7.75 7.80 7.85 7.90 7.95 8.00 0 10 y x 0 2 4 6 8 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.45 1.50 1.55 1.60 1.65 1.70 1.75 1.80 1.85 1.90 1.95 2.00 2.05 2.10 2.15 2.20 2.25 2.30 2.35 2.40 2.45 2.50 2.55 2.60 2.65 2.70 2.75 2.80 2.85 2.90 2.95 3.00 3.05 3.10 3.15 3.20 3.25 3.30 3.35 3.40 3.45 3.50 3.55 3.60 3.65 3.70 3.75 3.80 3.85 3.90 3.95 4.00 4.05 4.10 4.15 4.20 4.25 4.30 4.35 4.40 4.45 4.50 4.55 4.60 4.65 4.70 4.75 4.80 4.85 4.90 4.95 5.00 5.05 5.10 5.15 5.20 5.25 5.30 5.35 5.40 5.45 5.50 5.55 5.60 5.65 5.70 5.75 5.80 5.85 5.90 5.95 6.00 6.05 6.10 6.15 6.20 6.25 6.30 6.35 6.40 6.45 6.50 6.55 6.60 6.65 6.70 6.75 6.80 6.85 6.90 6.95 7.00 7.05 7.10 7.15 7.20 7.25 7.30 7.35 7.40 7.45 7.50 7.55 7.60 7.65 7.70 7.75 7.80 7.85 7.90 7.95 8.00 0 10 f1 f2 Color h,j,k,l,arrows,drag to pan i,o,+,-,scroll,shift-drag to zoom r,dbl-click to reset c for coordinates ? for help ? -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 -1.0 -0.9 -0.8 -0.7 -0.6 -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 -1.00 -0.99 -0.98 -0.97 -0.96 -0.95 -0.94 -0.93 -0.92 -0.91 -0.90 -0.89 -0.88 -0.87 -0.86 -0.85 -0.84 -0.83 -0.82 -0.81 -0.80 -0.79 -0.78 -0.77 -0.76 -0.75 -0.74 -0.73 -0.72 -0.71 -0.70 -0.69 -0.68 -0.67 -0.66 -0.65 -0.64 -0.63 -0.62 -0.61 -0.60 -0.59 -0.58 -0.57 -0.56 -0.55 -0.54 -0.53 -0.52 -0.51 -0.50 -0.49 -0.48 -0.47 -0.46 -0.45 -0.44 -0.43 -0.42 -0.41 -0.40 -0.39 -0.38 -0.37 -0.36 -0.35 -0.34 -0.33 -0.32 -0.31 -0.30 -0.29 -0.28 -0.27 -0.26 -0.25 -0.24 -0.23 -0.22 -0.21 -0.20 -0.19 -0.18 -0.17 -0.16 -0.15 -0.14 -0.13 -0.12 -0.11 -0.10 -0.09 -0.08 -0.07 -0.06 -0.05 -0.04 -0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.30 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.36 0.37 0.38 0.39 0.40 0.41 0.42 0.43 0.44 0.45 0.46 0.47 0.48 0.49 0.50 0.51 0.52 0.53 0.54 0.55 0.56 0.57 0.58 0.59 0.60 0.61 0.62 0.63 0.64 0.65 0.66 0.67 0.68 0.69 0.70 0.71 0.72 0.73 0.74 0.75 0.76 0.77 0.78 0.79 0.80 0.81 0.82 0.83 0.84 0.85 0.86 0.87 0.88 0.89 0.90 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1.00 -1 0 1 f(x)